Linux Package Managers
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1h 16m

This course provides an overview of Kali Linux and some of its main components and features. We'll also take a look at Linux in general including how it looks, how to use it, how to use the command line, how to change the settings, and more. We recommend taking this course as part of the Web Penetration Testing & Bug Bounty Hunting learning path.

Intended Audience

This course is intended for anyone who wants to learn the basics of Kali Linux, with a view to becoming an ethical hacker and/or a bug bounty hunter.


To get the most out of this course, it would be beneficial to already have some experience with Linux.


Hi. Within this lecture, we're going to learn about Linux package managers, and by package managers I mean some kind of tools or softwares that actually lets us install new tools or search for new tools or update and upgrade new tools easily. Okay. So, let me show you what I mean, and you will understand it in a better way. Okay. So, you can be root or you should be root in order to do that. So, I'm going to just open a root terminal. Okay? Or you can just open a regular terminal and become root by running sudo su. And after that I'm going to show you what you need to run. So, all you going to do is just run this apt update. So, apt is the package manager. So, let me show you what I mean by googling it. Okay, because apt is not the only option in Linux. In Kali Linux, we use actually apt. Okay So, we will be using apt throughout the course as well. But let me show you some other alternatives by googling it. You don't have to do that, I'm just googling it so that I can show you. Okay. Let me open the package manager from Wikipedia or let me search it like this, 'apt yum' and some other stuff. Here you go, apt, yum, dnf, pkg. So, here you go. So, package management system. You can see that every kind of different Linux distribution uses some kind of specific package manager. For example, you can see dnf, you can see yum, you can see apt, you can see package or pkg in other distribution of Linux systems like DBN or Buntu, Ubuntu, Fedora, BSD sent as. So, you can actually see different kinds of comments in order to achieve these results. But in Kali we are using apt, which is one of the alternatives, okay? What it does is it's actually it looks for the installed packages. It looks for the available packages in the package system, it downloads those packages, it downloads those softwares for you. It installs it in your system, it scatters it to the user folder, home folder, whatever folder it should be into. And it actually puts the binary in the bin folder so you can actually use it. Okay? So, there are a couple of things that you should learn about apt, and we will be seeing them right now. And as you can see there are a couple of instructions over here, you're more than welcome to read this on your own time. We're going to see the fundamentals of it and you will learn how to use it like in a minute. I'm just looking over here so that I can maybe find something interesting to show you. I believe that's it. We can just close this down and just go along with it. So, before we run this apt update, I'm going to show you, you can see apt or apt-get during the course. Like apt-get update rather than apt update or apt-get installed rather than apt installed. So, technically they are a little bit different but they do the same thing. Okay? So, apt and apt-get doesn't matter. So, first of all I'm going to run apt update which will actually update the apt so that it can find the newer versions of the packages of the tools that we will be downloading or upgrading. Okay? So, it's a good idea to update apt ponce you install the Kali Linux. So, it doesn't actually upgrade the existing tools inside of your own computer, it actually updates only the package manager itself, so that it can find newer versions. So, if you are ready to install you will be installing the new versions. If you run a apt upgrade by the way, don't do that right now, it upgrades the existing ones with the newer versions, but you don't have to do that right now, because it takes so long. Okay? And since you have already freshly installed Kali Linux, it should be up to date, maybe like a couple of files and folders, like couple of tools have updates available but they're not mandatory. If everything is working then I believe you can just skip this. Again, if you're on apt upgrade, it's going to take so long, unless you come across in the situation where you experience some tools not working then maybe you can upgrade, and try one more time. But if everything is working, just skip it. So, we generally use like this "apt install" and we write the tool that we want to install. Of course, you don't know any tools Right now, we haven't seen it for example, we don't know what a wireshark is, we will learn it later on during the course, but if you run it right now, as you can see it asks us do we want to continue, yes or no? I will say yes, why? And hit enter, and as you can see it installs the wireshark. And in fact, wireshark is already installed in the Kali Linux. It's just upgrading the wireshark because we have previously executed apt update. So, it found the newer version and once we installed the wireshark, it upgraded it. Okay. So, that's how we use apt. We just write the tool name and it downloads the tool. It installs the tool and tool is ready for us. It's very convenient, so you can do that with any available tool, of course. And in other versions, like in other distributions, you can see dnf, yum and it's exactly the same like yum installer, something like that. Okay? But we're going to go with apt or apt-get during this course, and again there you can use them interchangeably in this case, and if you want to search something, for example, if you want to search for some tool, okay, maybe you're going install something but you don't know the exact name of it. You can come over here and you can run apt search, of course, you must give what you're searching. For example, if you search for wireshark, you will see different versions or different tools related with the wireshark. As you can see there are many over here. Right now, you don't know the names of the tools or what they do. So, maybe you don't understand quite what's happening. Don't worry about it. Let me sort something else like bettercap. This is one of the tools that we will be using during the course. As you can see, we see all the related tools with the bettercap. So, I can just come over here and just select one of them and execute the comment with apt install. As you can see it's already in the universe version. So, it didn't do anything. So, we will use this a lot. You don't have to do anything right now. But if you see apt during the course then you know what it is now.


About the Author
Learning Paths

Atil is an instructor at Bogazici University, where he graduated back in 2010. He is also co-founder of Academy Club, which provides training, and Pera Games, which operates in the mobile gaming industry.