What is a Website?


HTML Crash Course
Course Intro
What is a Website?
9m 3s
12m 5s

The course is part of this learning path

What is a Website?

This crash course in HTML starts off with some basic questions such as "What is a website?" and "How do websites work?" before moving on to look at the fundamentals of HTML. We recommend taking this course as part of the Web Penetration Testing & Bug Bounty Hunting learning path.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the basics of what makes up a website
  • Learn the fundamentals of HTML

Intended Audience

This course is ideal for beginners who want to learn the fundamentals of HTML and its role in building a website.


To get the most out of this course, you should be familiar with using Kali Linux since it will be used throughout this course.


Hi, within this lecture, we're going to understand what is a website, and we're going to cover some of the terms that you may need to know before you go into the pen testing of the web applications and websites, okay? So, I'm going to explain all of these terms, and I'm going to explain a couple of bit more so that you will be ready to start this course. So, first of all, websites are actually files and folders stored in a computer, okay? But this computer has access to the Internet, so everybody can actually reach this computer and get the requests that they make in order to see the related pages, related applications whatever they're browsing on. For example, as you can see, there is a router which is the modem or router in your home and you have a computer, right? So, if you want to go to google.com for example, you make a request and you forward that request from your computer to your router, right? And then router will forward that request to the Internet. We'll go to that websites, hosting will go to the computer of that website is hosted on. So, hosting means that. And the IP addresses are very important in this case. So, first of all, let me tell you all about the IP addresses so you won't get confused. You don't have to do that, just let me do this for you. If you search for what is my IP in Google like this, it will show you the public IP that you're going to have or you have, okay? So, this is my public IP address. Of course, I'm censoring this so that you won't see mine, okay? You shouldn't share your public IP address. If you don't see it there, you can just click one of the links over here to see it. And again you don't have to do that, I'm just doing this for an example. And this public IP address is same for all the computers or devices that are connected to your router in your home. So, your phone has the same public IP address, your computer has the same public IP address but they have different local IP addresses, and this thing represents one of the examples that we may get. These local IP addresses are actually allocated by the router itself, and if you have installed your KALI Linux and if you have it running, you can actually see your public or local IP address by typing something into Terminal. You don't have to do that again, I'm just doing this for an example. Let me just change my keyboard over here. And if I run ifconfig or ifconfig, it will show me the configuration of my interfaces, and this is my local IP address which is I'm getting a 10.0.2.x IP address since we are operating in the network. And if you want to see yours in Windows for example, you can always run ipconfig in your Command Prompt. But again, you don't have to do that, I'm just doing this to demonstrate you the different kinds of IP addresses, okay? So, as we have a public IP address, the hosting, the computer that hosts this website, google.com, has a public IP address as well. And we actually pin that IP address or we actually send a request to that IP address and get a response back to our router and we forward that response to the related computer so that they can see what's going on on that website. It's pretty easy to actually understand an IP address of a website, I'm going to show you what it is. And the domain is actually the name of that website like google.com. So, hosting is the computer or server that hosts the files and folders that create the website. Domain is the name of that website, and DNS is actually the intermediary server like when you type google.com, it finds the related IP address and it sends the request to that IP address and we find. We actually match the IP address, correct IP address with correct domain using DNS which is Domain Name Servers, okay? So, Domain Name Servers. So, when we type google.com or some other websites by using DNS, Domain Name Servers, we find this IP address and we forward our requests and get back to responses and we see the responses like a website in our browser. And if you open your Kali Linux and just type in google.com, it will start to pin google.com and we will see the IP address of the Google like that. And you can just close this down by typing 'Ctrl+C' on your keyboard. So, this is the public IP address of the Google. So, Google uses this IP address for us to reach their servers and get responses back. So, that's it actually. That's how websites work, right? And what we're going to do, we're going to try and understand what kind of vulnerabilities or what kind of secretive flaws are residing in that server or in that hosting so that we can submit those flaws to the related company and get some bounties back. So, this is how an internal and external environment works. Of course, there are a lot of details about this networking operations as well, but that's all we need to know right now. You need to know the hosting, you need to know DNS, and you need to know the domain as well, at least what they mean because we're going to deal with those things a lot during our course. So, let's stop here and continue within the next one.


About the Author
Learning Paths

Atil is an instructor at Bogazici University, where he graduated back in 2010. He is also co-founder of Academy Club, which provides training, and Pera Games, which operates in the mobile gaming industry.

Covered Topics