Protecting your Databases through Encryption
The course is part of these learning paths
This course looks at the different encryption mechanisms that can be utilized across different AWS Database services, thereby enhancing the security posture and protection of your data. We'll take a look at encryption in Amazon RDS, DynamoDB, and ElastiCache.
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- Define and examine encryption across Amazon RDS, Amazon DynamoDB, and Amazon ElastiCache
- Understand both encryption at rest and encryption in transit
This course has been designed to assist those who are responsible for securing, designing, and operating AWS Database solutions, as well as anyone looking to take the AWS Certified Database - Specialty exam.
To get the most out of this course, you should have a basic awareness of AWS database services. You can brush up on these services with part one of our AWS Fundamentals course here. An awareness of the AWS Key Management Service (KMS) would also be advantageous, but not essential.
Hello and welcome to this lecture covering the encryption options available for Amazon ElastiCache.
Amazon ElastiCache is a service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale open-source, in-memory data stores in the cloud. This service improves the performance through caching, where web applications allow you to retrieve information from fast managed in-memory data stores instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based solutions.
ElastiCache supports both Memcached and the Redis engines, so existing applications can be easily moved to ElastiCache. But what is Memcached and Redis and what are the key differences between each cache engine?
Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached is a high-performance sub-millisecond latency Memcached-compatible in-memory key store service that can either be used as a cache in addition to a data store.
Amazon ElastiCache for Redis is purely an in-memory data store designed for high performance and again providing sub-millisecond latency on a huge scale to real-time applications.
For more information on Amazon ElastiCache, take a look at our existing course here: https://cloudacademy.com/course/database-fundamentals-part-one-1064/amazon-elasticache/
At the time of writing this course, ElastiCache for Memcached does NOT support encryption, however, Redis does, so let me take a look at the encryption available for the Redis engine.
The encryption options available to you depend on the version of Redis that you are running. For both encryption at rest and in transit you will need to ensure your cluster or replication group are running at least Redis 3.2.6, 4.0.10, or later.
From an in-transit encryption perspective, your data is protected each time it moves between nodes in your cluster or between your application and your cluster. When it comes to encryption at-rest, ElastiCache encrypts your data-on-disk, and during both sync and backup operations on your replication groups.
As you can see, encryption at-rest can be disabled or enabled via the tick box during the creation of your ElastiCache cluster. If enabled, you have the option of accepting the default encryption key (AWS managed keys), or you can select a customer-managed CMK and supply the ARN of the key.
You can also see from this image that you can also implement Encryption in-transit via a tick-box as well. When enabled, you are able to protect your data using TLS as it moves between your ElastiCache cluster components, for example between your primary node and a read replica node, in addition to this you also have the following protection benefits:
- Connections to and from the ElastiCache server and client will use SSL to communicate
- Server authentication, allowing your clients to authenticate to the correct server within your cluster
- When using the Redis AUTH feature, clients can be authenticated by the server
Redis AUTH can be selected as an access control option when you activate encryption in-transit and allow authentication via a defined token (password). If the token is a successful match then the client can run commands against the ElastiCache cluster. This provides an additional layer of protection. These tokens must comply to specific requirements, such as the following:
- Tokens must be 16–128 printable characters
- Non Alphanumeric characters are restricted to (!, &, #, $, ^, <, >, -)
An alternative to using Redis AUTH which gives all users the same permissions if the Token provided is a match, you can use the ‘User Group Access Control List’ as the Access Control Option. This allows you to authenticate users on a Role Based Access Control method (RBAC).
Using RBAC allows you to create different groups, each containing different users. Each group is created to segregate levels of permissions, usually, this relates to a job role. The group is granted different permissions based on an access string, and this allows you to enforce different levels of security across your ElastiCache deployments for different users.
Stuart has been working within the IT industry for two decades covering a huge range of topic areas and technologies, from data center and network infrastructure design, to cloud architecture and implementation.
To date, Stuart has created 90+ courses relating to Cloud reaching over 140,000 students, mostly within the AWS category and with a heavy focus on security and compliance.
Stuart is a member of the AWS Community Builders Program for his contributions towards AWS.
He is AWS certified and accredited in addition to being a published author covering topics across the AWS landscape.
In January 2016 Stuart was awarded ‘Expert of the Year Award 2015’ from Experts Exchange for his knowledge share within cloud services to the community.
Stuart enjoys writing about cloud technologies and you will find many of his articles within our blog pages.