Amazon Web Services EBS Volumes provides the block level storage volumes of Amazon EC2 instances. EBS volumes are highly available and reliable storage volumes that can be attached to the EC2 instances of the same Availability Zone over AWS internal network. Elastic Block Storage (EBS) is a storage service that is backed by network-connected block storage. So IOPS performance of an EBS volume is measured by the network throughput between the instance and EBS volume.
Two kinds of EBS volumes available
Standard Volumes offer cost-effective storage and can deliver approximately 100 IOPS on average, or burst of hundreds of IOPS. Standard Volumes size can range between 1 GB to 1 TB.
Provisioned IOPS (PIOPS) Volumes are designed for heavy I/O intensive workloads like databases and consistent high I/O throughput. You can specify an IOPS rate when you create the volume. PIOPS Volumes size can range between 10 GB and 1 TB.
The Standard or Provisioned IOPS Volumes I/O performance will depend on the Volume Size and Instance Type.
RAID on EBS Volumes
To get both a faster I/O performance and more than 1TB of volume sizes, you can create a RAID 0 striping using more than one EBS volume.
Advantage: When we perform the RAID 0 Striping of multiple volumes, IOPS are distributed among the volumes of a stripe. If you add another volume to RAID 0, you get the straight addition of IOPS throughput of that volume and additional volume size.
To take advantage of the RAID 0 striping, the instance type should support the High Networking Performance (like m3.xlarge, c3.2xlarge, r3.2xlarge, etc.).
Disadvantage: Loss of a single volume results in a complete data loss.
To avoid the data loss, we should take Snapshots of the RAID volumes frequently, and suspend the writes while taking the snapshot to ensure data integrity and reliability.
Here we will discuss on how to configure the RAID 0 Striping on 2 EBS volumes of several Linux machines. You can expand this to any number of volumes as per your requirements.
Create RAID Configuration
- Create the two EBS volumes with a size of 5 GB and attach them to the Amazon Linux Instance.
- Create a RAID 0 striped array using the two attached volumes:
mdadm –create /dev/md0 –level=0 –level=stripe –raid-devices=2 /dev/xvdc /dev/xvdd
(Assuming the 2 EBS volumes are attached as /dev/xvdc and /dev/xvdd respectively)
- Format the raid volume with your favorite file system:
- Mount it on a temporary directory:
mount /dev/md0 /srv/raid0
- Create some dummy data on /srv/raid0 directory:
dd if=/dev/zero of=file1 bs=1024 count=65530 (run it about 10 times)
It will fill 9GB of information onto the RAID meta device. Both the volumes contains data, given that each volume size is 5 GB.
Snapshot RAID volumes
- Create snapshots of the two volumes after suspending writes on those volumes.
Restore RAID Volumes
- Create the new EBS volumes from the snapshots we have created before.
- Launch an EC2 instance of either Amazon Linux or CentOS and attach the newly created EBS volumes.
- You can see the RAID meta device is created automatically by the OS itself. Use the fdisk -l command to check it out. Can you mount on a temporary mount point and verify whether 9GB of data is available or not?
- Now, launch an EC2 instance of Ubuntu and attach the newly created EBS volumes.
- Run the fdisk –l command and verify whether the RAID meta device created automatically by the OS itself. If not, run the following command to create the RAID meta device
madam –assemble /dev/md0 /dev/xvdc /dev/xvdd
- Now you can see a meta device with the name /dev/md0. You can mount it and check its content.
Hope this article will help you to manage the RAID configuration on EBS volumes to gain the maximum IOPS.
Which Certifications Should I Get?
As we mentioned in an earlier post, the old AWS slogan, “Cloud is the new normal” is indeed a reality today. Really, cloud has been the new normal for a while now and getting credentials has become an increasingly effective way to quickly showcase your abilities to recruiters and compan...
New Content: AWS, Azure, Typescript, Java, Docker, 13 New Labs, and Much More
This month, our Content Team released a whopping 13 new labs in real cloud environments! If you haven't tried out our labs, you might not understand why we think that number is so impressive. Our labs are not “simulated” experiences — they are real cloud environments using accounts on A...
Kickstart Your Tech Training With a Free Week on Cloud Academy
Are you looking to make a jump in your technical career? Want to get trained or certified on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud Platform, DevOps, Kubernetes, Python, or another in-demand skill?Then you'll want to mark your calendar. Starting Monday, June 22 at 12:00 a.m. PDT (3:00 a.m. EDT), ...
New Content: AZ-500 and AZ-400 Updates, 3 Google Professional Exam Preps, Practical ML Learning Path, C# Programming, and More
This month, our Content Team released tons of new content and labs in real cloud environments. Not only that, but we introduced our very first highly interactive "Office Hours" webinar. This webinar, Acing the AWS Solutions Architect Associate Certification, started with a quick overvie...
Azure vs. AWS: Which Certification Provides the Brighter Future?
More and more companies are using cloud services, prompting more and more people to switch their current IT position to something cloud-related. The problem is most people only have that much time after work to learn new technologies, and there are plenty of cloud services that you can ...
Blog Digest: 5 Reasons to Get AWS Certified, OWASP Top 10, Getting Started with VPCs, Top 10 Soft Skills, and More
Thank you for being a valued member of our community! We recently sent out a short survey to understand what type of content you would like us to add to Cloud Academy, and we want to thank everyone who gave us their input. If you would like to complete the survey, it's not too late. It ...
New Content: Alibaba, Azure Cert Prep: AI-100, AZ-104, AZ-204 & AZ-400, Amazon Athena Playground, Google Cloud Developer Challenge, and much more
This month, our Content Team released 8 new learning paths, 4 courses, 7 labs in real cloud environments, and 4 new knowledge check assessments. Not only that, but we introduced our very first course on Alibaba Cloud, and our expert instructors are working 'round the clock to create 6 n...
Top 5 Reasons to Get AWS Certified Right Now
Cloud computing trends are on the rise and have been for some time already. Fortunately, it’s never too late to start learning cloud computing. Skills like AWS and others associated with cloud computing are in high demand because cloud technologies have become crucial for many businesse...
Introducing Our Newest Lab Environments: Lab Playgrounds
Want to train in a real cloud environment, but feel slowed down by spinning up your own deployments? When you consider security or pricing costs, it can be costly and challenging to get up to speed quickly for self-training. To solve this problem, Cloud Academy created a new suite of la...
Blog Digest: AWS Breaking News, Azure DevOps, AWS Study Guide, 8 Ways to Prevent a Ransomware Attack, and More
New articles by topicAWS Azure Data Science Google Cloud Cloud Adoption Platform Updates & New Content Security Women in TechAWSBreaking News: All AWS Certification Exams Now Available Online As an Advanced AWS Technology Partner, C...
AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate: A Study Guide
Want to take a really impactful step in your technical career? Explore the AWS Solutions Architect Associate certificate. Its new version (SAA-C02) was released on March 23, 2020, though you can still take SAA-C01 through July 1, 2020. This post will focus on version SAA-C02.The AWS...
New on Cloud Academy: AWS Solutions Architect Exam Prep, Azure Courses, GCP Engineer Exam Prep, Programming, and More
Free content on Cloud Academy More and more customers are relying on our technology and content to keep upskilling their people in these months, and we are doing our best to keep supporting them. While the world fights the COVID-19 pandemic, we wanted to make a small contribution to he...