What are the AWS Certifications?
This is an overview of AWS certification levels, architecting, development and SysOps domains, AWS certification process, expected study requirements, overview of exam formats.
What are the benefits?
We'll see business benefits of being certified, best practice and compliance, standard design patterns, team roadmaps, making the most of new AWS features, AWS partner program - technology / consulting partner certification requirements.
More and more people are migrating to the AWS cloud and you may be asking yourself if AWS certification is something your team or business needs to consider to gain maximum value from the AWS cloud.
We're going to talk about AWS Certification for your Team, and the goal for today is showing you how you can benefit from having your team AWS certified. We'll go through all the process to get AWS certified we've a few suggestions.
And with me today, we have Andrew Larkin, he is the Head of the AWS training at Cloud Academy and he will give you a few suggestions and a few examples on how you can use the AWS certifications. After that I'm going to introduce you to Cloud Academy for Teams, that is our specific version of Cloud Academy for companies and teams, and then, of course, we'll have time for your questions and for curiosities or specific technical questions about the AWS certifications. So, Andrew, I'm going to give you control to your presentation.
- [Andrew] All right, brilliant. So thanks, Stefano, sorry for the delay everyone. Hello and welcome.
Great to have you all here with us to learn more about AWS Certification. So the objective of today's session is to outline why AWS certification may be of value to your team, explain the program tiers and what to expect from the exams, and suggest some resources to help your team get started if being AWS certified sounds like it could be of value to your business.
Now you may already be familiar with Amazon Web Services, and ideally, your team is already using AWS. I've included some links in the notes to help you get started if this is not the case. I'm sure most of you will be aware that AWS provides computing resources over the internet.
They're consumed on a pay as you go model. With AWS, you can consume computing resources the same way you might consume power when you turn on a light bulb at home. You can scale services up and down as required, which can increase agility and reduce operational costs. So AWS enables teams to do more by taking care of the undifferentiated heavy lifting required to run IT systems. And only paying for what you use costs less than Legacy IT pricing.
As users, we want to leverage all the benefits that the AWS cloud provides. We want to deliver systems quickly and efficiently whether it be to our end customers, or to our own internal business teams. We want to be as agile as possible. To succeed and fail fast. To be adding durability and removing single points of failure in our architecture. And ultimately, to be as effective and efficient as possible in meeting customer expectations. Now as with all new technologies, it can take time for teams to learn how to do things the best way.
The team will be busy working on projects and whatever time we do have, we need to use it wisely. Ideally, we want to take the well-trodden path over ending up exploring in the wilderness. Having the team on a learning path to get certified in AWS is a great first base for achieving this goal.
So let's take a look at why certification makes sense.
A key benefit of being certified is it helps you gain maximum value from AWS services. A good example of this, perhaps, is being able to design for the cloud. Now many first cloud projects tend to be what we like to call lift and shift projects. This is where you might take your existing application stack or data center and just shift it to the cloud. While that lift and shift approach will most likely result in cost efficiencies, it's also possible we end up lifting and shifting any design related performance limitations along the way in that migration.
Perhaps that performance bottleneck you experience on Fridays when doing a large inventory run or those delays you experience when trying to run business reports for example. Now a certified solution architect may see opportunity to increase elasticity when migrating your application to AWS by using multiple availability zones, creating auto-scale groups, and placing Elastic Load Balancers between the application and database layers.
Or perhaps implementing a read replica of the database, to improve read performance. Having a certified team ensures you are starting on the right track when moving to the cloud and that you get the most from AWS services. Now pricing and optimization on AWS is another area that is often new to traditional IT architects and SysOps engineers. How and when to utilize the AWS on-demand, spot, and reserved instances, is fundamental to gaining maximum ROI from your AWS-based solution.
Even simple design philosophies such as turning off instances that are not being used can net significant savings. Knowing how to set up performance and billing alarms in AWS CloudFormation, provides a new level of reporting granularity that most traditional SysOps teams have not been exposed to.
Once equipped with how to use these tools your teams will be empowered to deliver great services and efficiencies for your business.
Another key benefit of certification is that it encourages best practices in how services are run and implemented. AWS services are feature rich, which is a huge advantage. And it's important to know when and how to set these services to gain the best from them. We want to be builders, not explorers. So having team members AWS certified gives you every opportunity to save time and money doing things the right way first.
Team members can save time when they are aware of best practice architectures and design patterns. With the whole team certified, everyone can start a project with their common knowledge of best practices. Best practices are very important with security.
I'm sure you're all aware of this. AWS has a shared responsibility security model. It's out of our scope today to discuss this in detail, but in short, it means AWS manages the network and infrastructure layers, and you manage who has access to what and when on top of those layers. For system administrators, certification can ensure team members understand and implement security best practices. Having these fundamental concepts in place should be a priority on your team.
Best practices always net best results. Now, another key benefit of certification is it provides a framework for mentoring teams. So having a framework just to help keep teams aligned with the latest technologies.
According to industry reports, AWS is the leader in cloud computing so it's only natural technical teams will want to work with the latest technologies. Introducing an AWS certification learning path may help retain and attract staff now and in the future.
So we need to keep in mind AWS will continue to release new features and services. So defining a learning path to certification can give the team a framework for keeping up with the new features and best practices. That can help your business continue to gain maximum advantage from AWS services. Now, another business benefit is if you're considering becoming an AWS consulting or technology partner, having a certain number of AWS certifications is a prerequisite to the partner program.
The AWS partner program benefits a wide number of organizations and is well worth considering to help you get the most out of the AWS ecosystem. The number of certifications required to be a partner varies by partner tier. The latest requirements will be listed on the APN pages of the AWS website. Right. So what are the AWS certification levels?
Associate certification exams are 80 minutes. The professional certification exams are 170 minutes.
There are three domains for the associate tier and two domains for the professional tier. There are associate certifications for solution architect, SysOps administrator, and certified developer. The professional certifications are for solution architect and DevOps engineer.
All certifications require a thorough knowledge of the AWS services and design best practices. So students need to have a good understanding of how to design for elasticity, durability, and scale on AWS. So let's have a look at some of the exam requirements. Now there is a small charge for sitting the exam which may vary by provider. So do check first but as of today, it is $150 U.S.dollars for the associate exam and $300 U.S.dollars for the professional exam. If a student does not pass, there is a 14 day wait period before that student can register to resit the exam. You can only take the exam up to three times in one year from the date of your first attempt. And you will need to pay the exam fee each time. So it's well worth studying first. AWS certifications need to be recertified every two years. That would be too easy. I've included a link in the notes to the re-certification FAQ that's on the AWS website. Sitting and passing the professional exam within that two year period can count as an associate re-certification.
So it may make sense to define a learning path to professional certification for the whole team. Passing the associate exam is a prerequisite for sitting the professional solution architect or professional DevOps engineer exams. Okay, now you need to ensure you review the AWS exam blueprints as part of your preparation. I've put a link to the exam blueprints in the notes field.
From those blueprints, you will see the question format is currently mixed. Questions can be multiple choice, where the student selects one option that best answers the question or completes a statement. The question option might be embedded in a graphic where the student points and clicks on their selection choice to complete the test item.
Questions can also be multiple response. The student selects more than one option that best answers the question or completes a statement. Questions can also be formatted as sample directions. You read a statement or question and from the response option, select only the options that represent the most correct or best answers given the information provided to you in that description. Now these formats can be testing as more than one answer can look correct, especially if you haven't prepared properly. Doing sample questions and quizzes is an excellent way to test your domain knowledge and prepare yourself for answering these questions in the exam.
The professional certification is just shy of a three-hour exam. And students are required to have a deep knowledge of how to architect and manage solutions at scale. It's an excellent progression to make the professional certification.
The Cloud Academy professional certification learning path provides courses, labs and quizzes to help you prepare for the professional certification exam. We'll start by discussing the associate tier today. What to expect from the various tiers? Okay, so the certified solutions architect associate track is ideal for team members who will be designing both new and hybrid AWS solutions. Students will need a thorough understanding of the AWS services available today and when and how to use them together to achieve the best outcome. Now the exam guide outlines that 60% of questions may be on how to design highly available, fault-tolerant and scalable solutions, so students will need a thorough understanding of these topics and to be able to make architectural trade-off decisions to best meet solution objectives. These concepts are discussed in the AWS whitepapers and in the Cloud Academy learning paths. The benefit of going through the study phase for the certification is it helps solution architects start thinking and designing for the cloud as they learn the core AWS design principles. It's good for architects to be aware of some of the patterns seen in how enterprise customers move to AWS.
A solution architect will often need to work with more than one part of the business to gain the most from cloud services. Sometimes that may involve suggesting changes to how a business operates which often requires a good understanding of why this may be worth considering and how that might impact more than just people in the technology teams.
AWS is a disruptive technology and the AWS pricing and operation process may differ from how an organization is currently set up to work with providers. It's good for architects to understand how and when to apply a concept of change. There are many good tools like the AWS TCO calculator and simple monthly pricing tool available on the AWS website that can help an architect build a business case for change. Completing the solution architect's certification can provide a working understanding of AWS design patterns and operational best practices.
If you are looking at implementing any customer facing service or business setup on AWS, I would strongly advise your architects are AWS certified. Okay, the certified SysOps administrator track is going to help team members learn and apply AWS best practices in setting up, running and monitoring AWS services. A certified SysOps administrator will have a working understanding of how to deliver the stability and scalability needed by a business on AWS.
How to provision systems, services and how to automate deployment.
A certified SysOps administrator is more likely to know how to ensure data integrity and data security on AWS technology and will have an understanding of how to monitor out detailed metrics on AWS. Having a working knowledge of services such as AWS CloudFormation, AWS CloudWatch, and knowing how to create and bootstrap Amazon Machine Images or AMIs, can save significant time and effort when provisioning systems. Completing this certification can provide team members with a working knowledge of security and monitoring best practices, which in turn can provide more assurance back to your organization.
So the exam blueprint outlines a wide area of focus:
Wide range of skills required. Okay, the certified developer associate, a very good track, which can provide your software build teams with a foundation for how to leverage AWS resources such as the wide range of development SDKs which I won't list today.
And to build loosely-coupled elastic applications. It can provide guidance on how to implement code level application security, how to develop and maintain applications written for AWS services like AWS Simple Workflow Service, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and AWS CloudFormation as examples. Now the exam guide outlines 10% of questions could be on AWS fundamentals.
So you need to know the whole stack.
40% focus on designing and developing, pretty big slice.
30% on deployment and security.
And 20% on debugging. Studying for the certified developer exam is a really good way to help a development team get up to speed with the wide range of AWS services that are available.
Okay, so resources to help you get certified. Now both the associate and professional level certifications require applied study and as much hands-on experience designing and implementing solutions as possible. Team members can undertake study and practice individually and ideally start on a learning path defined by your team lead or a training specialist like Cloud Academy.
The AWS exam guides give a good breakdown of what is likely to be in the exam. So I highly recommend always reviewing these first. The AWS whitepapers are a valuable resource for understanding core concepts of security, elasticity, and high availability.
The AWS documentation is excellent and you should familiarize yourself with how to navigate and use it.
Now as with most learning, there is really no one right way that suits everyone, so team members will have their own preference for how they like to learn and study. So a blended approach might net the best results for you and your teams.
The Cloud Academy learning paths can really help you. So let's take a quick look at those.
The AWS certification learning paths combine tutorials, labs, and quizzes into outcome-driven learning paths.
Team members can complete courses and labs at their own pace and the Cloud Academy platform provides content recommendations to help students complete and achieve their certification goal.
The quizzes are an excellent way to test your knowledge and prepare for exams.
The Cloud Academy mobile app is really great for brushing up on quiz questions while you're waiting in a queue or on the move. Fantastic way of learning and ensuring you know all of the core aspects that are required for the domain. Okay, so that closes the content piece, for today. Thank you again for your attention. We have left time for Q&A.
I'm going to hand over to Stefano now who's going to run us through a little information and then we'll have a Q&A at the end.
So please send us your questions and let us know your feedback and any ideas on how we can help you get certified. Thank you. Let's just pass this back to you, Stefano, here. - Thank you. Should be able to see my screen. Okay. All right. Okay, thank you, Andrew, for your presentation.
So we have seen how to use AWS certification for your teams.
Let me tell you more about our version that is Cloud Academy for Teams. So first of all inside Cloud Academy, of course, we have different learning paths for all the five AWS certifications that are available today, but we don't think that as an AWS professional you just need a certification.
So our focus is really toward continuous training and of course providing you materials for re-certification but also new material every month so you can actually get up to date with your skills. So talking about this specific version of Cloud Academy for Teams, it's a design version of Cloud Academy that allows you to invite all the people in your organization inside your account. So as soon as they get access to that account, they can see our content library, so everything that is labs, quizzes, courses, learning paths. You can divide your single team members in different teams.
So for example, you could create a team for your region in Asia, a team for your headquarters in the U. S.another team for Europe.
And of course, the advantage and the thing that is quite normal for every single manager or company that is using Cloud Academy is making sure that those teams are using the product are really learning and studying through Cloud Academy.
And that's the reason why you will have access also to reports and analytics to understand if your team is really studying for example, for that specific certifications or for example, if they're having troubles with something that could be quizzes, so being able to see if their failure rate is going higher or is going lower if they're learning more.
The last two important things about Cloud Academy for Teams are that you can download reports and statistics. So usually it happens that a lot of our customers really want to download the statistics about their own teams in order to provide feedback, in order to collect more data in their own system and so on and so forth.
And together with that, of course, you can download courses.
About the pricing and how Cloud Academy for Teams works, so you basically get a seat for every person and it's $495 per person a year.
That gives you access to everything that we have at Cloud Academy.
That means that every single month you will find new content, not only about AWS and AWS certifications, but about several other cloud platforms and of course you have all the updates that we release for the content or for new features inside Cloud Academy.
Volume discounts are available so if you are using Cloud Academy with a big team, you can expect to have a volume discount from us and of course, you get access to the dedicated support from our team.
So if you have a problem or if one of your team members have a specific problem they'll get access to dedicated support from us. Last two important things to me are actually that we have available our reseller/partner program so if you have a company that is working on the professional services side or you're doing consulting and you want to offer cloud training to your customers as well, you can actually partner with Cloud Academy in order to offer our product to your customers as well.
If you want to try Cloud Academy for Teams today, you can ask for a 10 days trial, it's going to be completely free, you can request all of that through that link that you find in this slide, so cloudacademy.com/enterprise and you can get in touch with our sales team, get your trial activated and try to invite your team to see how it works for you.
That's it, I think that before the questions time I would like to deliver you guys a poll so we can understand a bit more about your needs.
First: it's important for us to understand how large is your team and trying to get in touch with you eventually to offer you a trial and let your team start with that.
Just a few seconds in order to collect all the votes and then we can quickly move to the questions. So I see that we have already a few questions about AWS certification. It's exciting, so I'm happy to answer to all of that together with Andrew. Just a few seconds. Okay, I'm going to close the poll. That's it, thank you for joining us, let's move to the questions. Let me invite back Andrew. Okay, thank you. - Okay, can you hear me? - Yeah. - We've got a couple of good ones here Stefano. - Yeah, go ahead. - Yeah, first one is, “Is the practice exam similar to the real exam?” Yeah, well the practice exam is a good way for you to just check in on how you're going in your domain knowledge. AWS don't let anyone know what the question formats are, so who knows?
I found the practice exams are a good test. It's well worth doing a practice test. Of course, you can use the Cloud Academy quizzes, they're very good for brushing up on your domain knowledge and for helping you get used to that type of quick question.
You do need to think on your feet and as I said earlier, if you're not properly prepared, the questions will seem extremely hard. So it's a very good way to just test out where you are with the test questions. There is a small charge for it, but the good side of that is that it gives you a sense of what the exam will be like. So yeah, I highly recommend doing it. Another question we've got here is, “How many questions can you expect in the associate level exam?”
Well again, that's not released, we don't know until you're in there, it can change. Criterion is the current certification provider. There may be more and others in the future so it's a proctored exam which means you need to leave all of your things in reception, you can't take anything into the exam with you. It's a pretty high-pressure situation. You have someone who checks you in and checks you out.
You're generally going to plan about three minutes per question. So you'll find you'll need to be thinking quickly, you'll need to be recognizing and understand the question quickly, so again, it's very very useful to run as much testing on yourself before you go in there. And you want to come out with a good result. So you're going to repay every time you go back and resit, you have to wait 14 days if you don't pass and you can only take the exam three times in one year.
So being really well-prepared saves you time and money. Yeah, let's have a look. So can't give you the exact questions, of course, guys that's not something that's available in the public domain. “Wanted to know the details of AWS as a professional cert.”
Yeah, so it's a good high bar to go for and you really need a good thorough understanding of the AWS design principles for this exam. So it's well worth preparing first. You need to do the associate exam as a prerequisite and then you have almost three hours of questions for the professional certification. The questions are going to be testing. They're going to be complex scenarios. And it's going to be what looks like more than one right answer. So it's often going to come back to the core principles of AWS design. Loosely decoupling, getting as much high availability as possible and always remember to read the requirements, the solution requirements. Is it time, is it cost, is it durability? And often it's going to come down to the most cost-efficient way of doing things so it's good to keep those core tenets in the back of your mind. You really need to put some focused time into preparing for the professional certifications. It's going to uncover any gaps you have. So there's no point going in there if you haven't covered all of those domain areas. You need to know in depth all of the products that AWS provides and how to combine them together.
And you're often going to have to make trade-off decisions in the exam to just think through what solution will give you the best result as per the requirements [inaudible]. And it might feel quite unnatural so it might not be your natural tendency if you're used to having resources available, unlimited resources, and you're given a scenario that suggests you do something in the most cost-efficient way or the quickest way. You're going to have to think through well what's the best way of doing that with the technology and time and cost constraints that I have for this particular scenario. Okay, discount for students? Stefano? - Yes, we do have a discount for students so you can actually find that online in our pricing page, is $9.00 a month, and you get all the content that we have at Cloud Academy.
Of course, we also have a team version for universities or other educational institutions so you can just send a request through the enterprise page and you will get in touch with our sales team. - Yeah, we've got another good one here on what is the pass rate? Again, that's unknown. It's confidential to the testing body and to AWS so you're not going to know that, just try and get as many questions right as possible. The success rate, again not something that we're exposed to, not something that's discussed. The professional exam is tough. And all exams are tough. They're designed to ensure that you have a very thorough understanding of AWS services, solutions, and most importantly best practices.
So it's a good bar, and if you have a whole team certified in AWS you're at a certain level which is very very good. And that gives a lot of assurance back to your business teams, it gives assurance back to your executive, and it gives assurance to your customers that you're going to provide the very best solution using these great technologies. “Where are the tests taken for certification?” So I put a link in the notes which is how to take the exam. They're run by certified accredited testing partners which currently is Criterion, as I mentioned there may be more, it's really entirely up to AWS.
There's a link there, you set up a Criterion account and then you'll be directed to a number of testing centers that are close to you. You're generally waiting three or four days once you've booked an exam, so there is a bit of a wait period before you get a time. Passing score? Touched on that. Let's have a look here. Quite a few questions on what the pass rate is.
It's entirely up to the testing body. If you were to aim to have sort of 75% of your questions right when you're doing quizzes I think that would be a good benchmark. It's my personal opinion. Stefano are there any other questions we want to pick up on now? - I think that we have a couple that are interesting. So one is,
“Do you have any plans to create company-specific learning paths?”
Yes, that's one of the functionalities that we're going to launch this quarter, so the availability for companies to create specific learning paths that they will assign and deliver to their teams and of course, collect data and other few things that actually I cannot disclose today. But that's something that our technical team is building and will be available soon. Another one let me see,
“Can I ask you a question about a type of AWS certificate? My future plan is to join a large company like Amazon and I would like to be a data engineer. What type of associate certificate would you think I need?”
Data engineer is a pretty broad topic. Probably I think that is...and correct me, Andrew feel free to step in. I think that the associate or solution architect associate is always a good way to started with AWS and know how large is AWS in general, the number of services included. But probably I would go for something that is probably more oriented on re-certified developer, I that would be probably the best match. What do you think, Andrew? - Yeah, I agree.
The solution architect would give you the base knowledge that I think is really important which is understanding the core concepts of AWS design, so elasticity, durability, high availability. Once you get these things as part of your thinking patterns, it makes design and development much easier further down the track. And also being aware of all of the parts that you can bring together. It's like a great big LEGO box and if you're able to understand each of the pieces you can build the most amazing things. So Lambda... If you are doing a dev track, it would make sense to do the developer certification first, because that's going to give you a good understanding of some of the SDKs that you'll be able to use, it'll give you some understanding as how to use API gateway, and really start to build things using these great services. And then as a track, I'd go for the professional DevOps engineer as well.
Because that's going to give you some good understandings around high availability, continuous integration, and continuous deployment and just getting a really good sense of how to bring all these great things together to create very very, scalable and feature-rich applications. Yeah, that'd be my thinking too, Stefano. - Last couple of questions.
So we have a very similar question from what it seems that he's asking us, “As a telecom engineer what is the most important certificate that would be more useful for me, solution architect or SysOps?” Good question. I think that probably again, DevOps would probably be better, just because it gives you more knowledge about availability and how to design inside AWS is probably more aligned with you set of skills, also from a networking perspective. Would you want to add something Andrew? - Yeah, I agree. I think you just can't go wrong with having too many certifications right? Because every time you're adding another layer of expertise.
So being able to decouple and looking for stateless opportunities ways of improving performance. The SysOps track will give you a lot of that. Remember in those exam blueprints there's a wide range of questions in the exam format. So preparing for SysOps is going to give you a deep understanding of a lot of areas or domains that you'll find useful as you're designing. And if you're looking at... I mean, there's two different things here. One is you want to get a certification to get into a role, or do you want to have a certification as a best practice foundation so that you feel more confident in what you're doing and also that you feel that you can bring in a lot of value to projects? Now they're both very, very important tracks and both important strategies and if you are looking at getting certified to get that job in the first place, then yeah I think associate SysOps would be a great place to start and you could look at moving into the professional DevOps if that's an area that you feel comfortable with.
And then over time yeah, having these certifications on a regular roadmap can just keep you up to date with all of the latest and greatest technologies that are coming out from AWS. And that's going to make you empowered in your job, it's going to make the team more likely to use best practices at all times and as the number of projects goes up and the complexity goes up, you'll have this baseline you can refer back to and you're always assured that you're doing things the right way. And security and networking is going to be crucial so, having a base understanding in that can save you a lot of time later as the complexity goes up and you find yourself having to go back and ask yourself is this the best way to design? Am I doing things right here? That can really help.
- Nice, thank you. Very last question. “Is it worth it to learn Microsoft Azure and pass certification exams after achieving AWS certifications?”
Yes. So one of the advantages that we see at Cloud Academy is actually the ability for professionals and for companies who operate on different cloud vendors so definitely, that's definitely something that you want to have in your skills. The ability to operate on AWS and having under your belt a few AWS certifications and of course, also Microsoft Azure and I would say also Google certification. So those are the three most important providers in terms of numbers today. So that's probably something that you should consider. Okay, thank you. I think that I have just one last poll before I leave you so we'll be able to send you a few more information targeted for you, and then we can close the webinar. And of course, if you have other questions, we are available so you can use cloudacademy.com/community if you have open questions for our community, or you can contact us directly at email@example.com and if you want to request the trial version for your team, the correct address is cloudacademy.com/enterprise. Or you can go to our home page at cloudacademy.com and just click on Team Version. Okay, just a few more seconds to let you vote. -
Yeah, there's one last question there, Stefano, while we're waiting. - Oh sure. Go ahead. -
The question is, “Do we have real world scenarios during the labs?”
The labs are great. Getting hands-on is the best way of learning. So the more labs you can do, the better.
And the learning paths have some really good relevant labs in there.
They're all based on real-world scenarios and you've got four or five common patterns you see in how enterprises and businesses adopt AWS technologies. So there's that kind of experimental stage where people will be doing dev test environments.
There's the opportunity to host websites which all have a base network infrastructure or instance requirement, high availability or durability. So a lot of the design scenarios around those type of early adoption paths that we see. And then of course, as businesses progress, they start to migrate more business apps and ideally they'll start to move into a more structured dev test environment. And a lot of the early steps are backup and recovery, and disaster recovery because it's a very easy way to get started with the platform.
And then you'll see organizations move into a more...a complete, if you like, an all-in strategy where they'll look at moving data centers and start to move all of their mission-critical business apps as well. And that kind of progression there's use cases and scenarios to do with network security, setting up your network address ACLs all of the core building blocks of good solid design that are touched on in those labs. And then there's some more complex scenarios in the professional tracks that you'll see that really do push your knowledge and get you to do very real world scenarios.
Okay? - Okay. Thank you so much for joining us today. We are going to share with you a recording of this webinar and of course, a few other information for you about Cloud Academy for Teams and about AWS certifications.
Thank you again for joining us, thank you Andrew for your gracious presentation.